( ; ''), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (''), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago with Bahrain Island, the largest land mass, at and has since been ruled by the House of Khalifa|Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa|Ahmed al Fateh as Bahrain's first Hakim (title)#In Arab countries|hakim. In the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. In 1971, Bahrain Bahrain Independence Day|declared independence. Formerly a State of Bahrain|state, Bahrain was declared a Monarchy|Kingdom in 2002. Since early 2011, the country has experienced Bahraini uprising (2011ÔÇôpresent)|sustained protests and unrest inspired by the regional Arab Spring, particularly by the majority Shia Islam|Shia population.Bahrain has the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf because the Bahraini economy does not rely on oil. Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has heavily invested in the banking and tourism sectors. The country's capital, Manama, is home to many large financial structures. Bahrain has a high Human Development Index (ranked 48th in the world) and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. The United States designated Bahrain a major non-NATO ally in 2001. , Bahrain is ruled by an "authoritarian regime" and is rated as "Not Free" by the U.S.-based non-governmental Freedom House.